Although the government has designated non-smoking zones , there seemed to be negligible enforcement and issuance of fines. Is Malaysia’s government just too incompetent? The government may have been aware of the possible consequences in hasty cigarette tax hikes. It decided tax hikes were necessary to meet its budget deficit target. “As per the trends of past years, there is usually a surplus to offset the deficit from the first half, in turn keeping the deficit within the target,” said Lee Heng Guie, executive director of Socio-Economic Research Centre. Malaysia achieved its budget deficit target of around 3% despite billion-dollar losses in oil revenue. Together with cost-cutting measures, sin tax made up for any shortfalls in revenue. The cigarette industry holds the second place in terms of total excise collection, which contributes significantly to indirect tax ( 22.9% of the 2017 Federal Governmental budget). Additionally, the government has failed to control its illegal cigarette trade.
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Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales.
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A study on juvenile delinquency carried out by the Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation showed that cigarette smoking offence (87%) is the top of the seven offences among delinquent children. Making cigarettes affordable for our youths and children will clearly result in far greater repercussions than we can imagine. 3. Every year, more than 20,000 Malaysians are killed by tobacco-related diseases. Studies show that more men and women die in Malaysia from tobacco-related diseases than on average in middle-income countries. What is more alarming is that you don’t need to be a smoker to be at risk. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2012 on Malaysia revealed that four out of 10 adults were found to be exposed to secondhand smoke at home (7.6 million adults), and four out of 10 were found to be exposed to secondhand smoke indoors at their workplace (2.3 million adults). Among those adults who visited a restaurant in the past 30 days, seven out of 10 would have been exposed to secondhand smoke (8.6 million adults). 4.